A.k.a. an attribute of a data set.
A data instance is a data entry/record/sample of a data set.
The information/data that describes the actual data set.
A data processing procedure that transforms the data into a format that is compliant with the requirement of the machine learning tool. For example, it includes dealing with missing data.
A nary function is a function that takes n parameters.
Examine a predictive model and obtain a feeling of how it works.